CANE CORSO BREED HEALTH ISSUES
Health issues that can affect the Cane Corso breed:
Hip dysplasia is a multifactorial abnormal development of the coxofemoral joint in dogs that is characterized by joint laxity and subsequent degenerative joint disease. It is most common in large breeds. Excessive growth, exercise, nutrition, and hereditary factors affect the occurrence of hip dysplasia. The pathophysiologic basis for hip dysplasia is a disparity between hip joint muscle mass and rapid bone development. As a result, coxofemoral joint laxity or instability develops and subsequently leads to degenerative joint changes, eg, acetabular bone sclerosis, osteophytosis, thickened femoral neck, joint capsule fibrosis, and subluxation or luxation of the femoral head.
Canine elbow dysplasia (ED) is a disease of the elbows of dogs caused by growth disturbances in the elbow joint. There are a number of theories as to the exact cause of the disease that include defects in cartilage growth, trauma, genetics, exercise, diet and so on. It is likely that a combination of these factors leads to a mismatch of growth between the two bones in the fore leg located between the elbow and the wrist (radius and ulna). If the radius grows more slowly than the ulna it becomes shorter leading to increased pressure on the medial coronoid process of the ulna. This in turn can cause damage to the cartilage in joint and even fracture of the tip of the coronoid process, which damages the medial compartment (side closest to the body) of the joint. Less commonly, if the ulna grows too slowly then the radius pushes the upper arm bone (humerus) against the anconeal process, which can then lead to failure of the anconeal process to attach to the ulna at maturity. It is believed that the mismatch in growth between the radius and ulna may sometimes only occur during a puppy’s growth, but it may also persist when the pup has finished growing.
CHERRY EYE: ( Canine Nictitans Glad Prolapse )
Cherry eye is a disorder of the nictitating membrane (NM), also called the third eyelid, present in the eyes of dogs and cats. Cherry eye is most often seen in young dogs under the age of two. Common misnomers include adenitis, hyperplasia, adenoma of the gland of the third eyelid; however, cherry eye is not caused by hyperplasia, neoplasia, or primary inflammation. In many species, the third eyelid plays an essential role in vision by supplying oxygen and nutrients to the eye via tear production. Normally, the gland can evert without detachment. Cherry eye results from a defect in the retinaculum which is responsible for anchoring the gland to the periorbita. This defect causes the gland to prolapse and protrude from the eye as a red fleshy mass. Problems arise as sensitive tissue dries out and is subjected to external trauma. Exposure of the tissue often results in secondary inflammation, swelling, or infection. If left untreated, this condition can lead to Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and other complications.
Entropion is the turning in of the edges of the eyelid so that the eyelashes rub against the eye surface. It is the most frequent inherited eyelid defect in many dog breeds. It may also follow scar formation and severe involuntary winking due to pain in the eye or the surrounding area. The turning in of eyelashes or facial hairs causes discomfort and irritation of the conjunctiva and cornea. Extremely long lashes can cause scarring, abnormal coloring, and possibly the formation of slow-healing sores on the cornea.
Ectropion is a slack eyelid edge that is turned out, usually with a large notch or “crack” in the eyelid. It is a common abnormality affecting both eyelids in a number of dog breeds, including the Bloodhound, Bull Mastiff, Great Dane, Newfoundland, St. Bernard, and several Spaniel breeds. Developing scars in the eyelid or facial nerve paralysis may produce ectropion in one eyelid in any species. Exposure of the conjunctiva to environmental irritants and secondary bacterial infection can result in longterm or recurrent conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva). Topical antibiotics may temporarily control infections, but surgical lid-shortening procedures are often necessary to resolve the condition. Repeated, periodic cleansing of the affected eyelid with mild decongestant solutions can control mild cases. To protect your pet’s eyesight, follow your veterinarian’s treatment program carefully.
In dogs, epilepsy is often an inherited condition.
There are three types of epilepsy in dogs: reactive, secondary, and primary.
Reactive epileptic seizures are caused by metabolic issues, such as low blood sugar or kidney or liver failure. Epilepsy attributed to brain tumor, stroke or other trauma is known as secondary or symptomatic epilepsy.
There is no known cause for primary or idiopathic epilepsy, which is only diagnosed by eliminating other possible causes for the seizures. Dogs with idiopathic epilepsy experience their first seizure between the ages of one and three. However, the age at diagnosis is only one factor in diagnosing canine epilepsy, as one study found cause for seizures in one-third of dogs between the ages of one and three, indicating secondary or reactive rather than primary epilepsy.
Gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV or bloat), is a life-threatening medical condition in which the stomach becomes increasingly distended with gas to the point where it can rupture. What triggers bloat is not well understood. However, the physiological processes are. When the stomach rotates on its long axis (think of this as the connection between the stomach and esophagus on one end, and the stomach and small intestine on the other), gas and fluids become trapped. The spleen, which is attached to the stomach wall, also flips over. Normal production of gas in the stomach continues, but because both the entrance into and exit from the stomach are obstructed, gas can no longer escape up the esophagus through burping or vomiting, or down the gastrointestinal tract and out through the anus (flatus). As the stomach contents continue to ferment, the bloating stomach compresses the diaphragm and major abdominal blood vessels, shutting down digestion and reducing blood return to the heart. This decreases the amount of blood that leaves the heart, lowering blood pressure and causing poor distribution of oxygen throughout the dog’s body. Gastrointestinal tissues start to ulcerate and die, vital organs start to fail, and within a very short period of time the dog goes into hypovolemic and hypotensive shock from low circulating blood volume and low blood pressure. At this point, the dog is fighting for its life and will die without treatment. Bloat is a life-threatening emergency. Without immediate intervention, the chance of survival is extremely low. Owners of any dog, but especially a large deep-chested dog, should be sure to establish a good relationship with a nearby veterinarian and become familiar with the signs of bloat, so that if it happens they are prepared to deal with it immediately.
Demodicosis, also called demodectic mange or red mange, is caused by a sensitivity to and overpopulation of Demodex canis as the hosts immune system is unable to keep the mites under control.
Demodex is a genus of mite in the family Demodicidae. Demodex canis occurs naturally in the hair follicles of most dogs in low numbers around the face and other areas of the body. In most dogs, these mites never cause problems. However, in certain situations, such as an underdeveloped or impaired immune system, intense stress, or malnutrition, the mites can reproduce rapidly, causing symptoms in sensitive dogs that range from mild irritation and hair loss on a small patch of skin to severe and widespread inflammation, secondary infection, and in rare cases can be a life-threatening condition. Small patches of demodicosis often correct themselves over time as the dog's immune system matures, although treatment is usually recommended.
PANROSTEITIS: ( GROWING PAINS, PANO )
Panosteitis is a spontaneous, self-limiting disease of young, rapidly growing large and giant dogs that primarily affects the diaphyses and metaphyses of long bone. The exact etiology is unknown, although genetics, stress, infection, and metabolic or autoimmune causes have been suspected.
The pathophysiology of the disease is characterized by intramedullary fat necrosis, excessive osteoid production, and vascular congestion. Endosteal and periosteal bone reactions occur.
Clinical signs are acute and cyclical and involve single or multiple bone(s) in dogs 6–16 mo old. Animals are lame, febrile, inappetent, and have palpable long bone pain. Radiography reveals increased multifocal intramedullary densities and irregular endosteal surfaces along long bones. Therapy is aimed at relieving pain and discomfort; oral NSAIDs and opioids can be used during periods of illness. Excessive dietary supplementation in young, growing dogs should be avoided.